What are clusters in an industry? It should be noted that a cluster came in an industry recently in connection with the Federal Law adopted in 2014 and is considered within the framework of the state subprogram “Development of an Industry and Increase of its Competitiveness”. As a matter of fact, the cluster in the industry is a chain of localized industries, around which an appropriate infrastructure has been created – educational institutions, banks, public organizations and participants in the technological infrastructure.
The prerequisites for creating an industrial cluster can be:
A cluster entered the industry as a new tool for import substitution and economic development of the territories of the Russian Federation; therefore, it is supported by the State through special subsidies. In order to receive benefits, it is necessary to send applications for the creation of a cluster to the Ministry of Industry and Trade of the Russian Federation. What is offered as a state support for clusters in the industry? In particular, the subsidy can compensate for costs such as licensing and certification of the product, as well as technological measures, in particular, the purchase of equipment. Thus, clusters should develop the industry, including by supporting enterprises that cannot develop for various reasons independently, for example, small organizations that can also become members of the cluster.
A cluster in an industry is a number of advantages for the region and its economic development. In addition to the obvious advantages – the creation of a convenient, coordinated chain of production, as well as distribution points – the following performance indicators can be noted:
Generally speaking, the practice of distributing clusters in an industry in Russia is not yet widespread, but there are already positive examples. In particular, if you turn to statistics, about 2,000 industrial enterprises have already merged into clusters, having organized about 125 associations in 56 regions of the Russian Federation. The most famous are the following directions: glass industry, agro-industrial complex, machine-tool manufacture, automobile industry, metallurgy, construction, chemical, medical industry, biotechnology, and others. At the same time, there is a potential for growth in the industry through the development of clusters, so this direction will gain momentum with the due support of the State in the coming years.